Anemia: Decrease in the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood; indicated by a low red blood cell count and hemoglobin concentration.
Anomaly: Deviation from what is regarded as normal; congenital malformation.
Apoptosis: The mechanism by which cells are systematically eliminated from the body.
Bone Marrow: Soft tissue within the bones; where blood cells are manufactured.
Bone Marrow Aspiration: Test in which a sample of bone marrow cells is removed with a needle and examined under a microscope.
Bone Marrow Transplant: Procedure during which bone marrow stem cells of the patient are destroyed by chemotherapy and/or radiation and then replaced with healthy stem cells from a donor. Stem cells may also be obtained from peripheral blood or umbilical cord blood.
Chelation: A system to remove excess iron from the blood and tissues.
Chronic: Of long duration; designating a disease showing little change, or, of slow progression.
Complete Blood Count (CBC): A test that checks the number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets in a sample of blood.
Congenital: Present at birth.
Cytokines: Growth factors which promote the proliferation and maturation of blood cells.
Diamond Blackfan Anemia: A rare pure red blood cell anemia of infancy and childhood resulting from the failure of the bone marrow to produce red blood cells.
Differential: Percent of different types of white blood cells in the blood.
Dominant: In genetics, a trait or characteristic that will be expressed in the offspring even though it is carried on only one of the homologous (parental) chromosomes.
Endocrine: System to secrete; the network of ductless glands and other structures that elaborate and secrete hormones directly into the blood stream, affecting the function of specific target organs.
Erythropoietin: Hormone produced in the kidneys which drives red blood cell production.
Etiology: The cause of a disease.
Granulocyte: Type of white blood cell; includes the basophil, eosinophil, and neutrophil (or poly), which is the infection-fighting cell.
Hematology: Study of the blood.
Hematocrit: Ratio of red blood cells to plasma in the blood; portion of the blood’s total volume that is made up of red blood cells. Normal values vary: men 45% to 57%; women 37% to 47%; children depending on age 36% to 40%.
Hemoglobin: Hgb or Hb; iron-containing coloring in the blood cells that combines with oxygen from the lungs and carries it to the body’s cells. Normal values for men: 14 to 18 g/dl: women 12 to 16 g/dl; children 12 to 16 g/dl.
Hematopoiesis: The forming of new blood cells.
Hypoplastic: Defective formation; incomplete development of a part.
Leukocyte: A white blood cell formed in lymphoid tissue throughout the body, e.g., lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, tonsils, and sometimes in bone marrow.
Megakaryocyte: Large cells in the bone marrow from which pieces break off to form platelets.
Multipotent: Having the ability to become more than one cell type
Neutropenia: Low neutrophil (poly) count.
Neutrophil: Type of white blood cell; also call granulocyte or polymorphonuclear leukocyte (poly). Normal values are 50-60 percent or 3,000 to 7,000 in number.
Osteoporosis: Loss of bone calcareous matter and increased bone porosity.
Pancytopenia: Low number of all blood cells.
Parvovirus B-19: The cause of a usually benign disease known as fifth disease; in immunocomprised patients, may cause aplastic anemia.
Platelets: Blood cells which form clots therefore preventing bleeding and bruising. Normal values range from 150,000 to 400,000 per microliter of blood. A count below 50,000 can result in spontaneous bleeding; below 5,000 patients are at risk of severe life-threatening bleeds.
Precursors: A substance that precedes another substance.
Progenitor: A parent or ancestor; anything that originates or precedes. Blood cell progenitors are derived from stem cells an give rise to precursors
Red Blood Cell: Oxygen-carrying cell in the blood which contains the pigment hemoglobin, produced in the bone marrow; erythrocyte. Counts refer to the number of cells in a single drop (microliter) of blood. Normal ranges vary according to sex and age.
Refractory: Not responding to treatment
Reticulocyte (Retic) Count: Number of young red blood cells.
Stem Cell: Cell from which platelets, red blood cells, and white cells grow in the bone marrow.
Thrombocyte: Platelet; clotting factor in the blood.
Thrombocytopenia: Low platelet count.
White Blood Cells: Blood cells which fight infection. Normal values range from 4,100 to 10,900 cells in a microliter of blood (drop) but can be greatly altered by factors such as stress, exercise and disease.